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سوء التغذية ودورها في سمنة ونحافة الجسم

Obesity and its health damage

Obesity and its health damage

Obesity is a serious health crisis in many countries, a crisis that is on the rise in many advanced industrial countries. In 2009-10, 36 percent of Americans were classified as obese.

Although many classifications and definitions of obesity are common, the WHO definition of the disease is the most common and receptive.

The World Health Organization (WHO) categorizes the stages of obesity as follows:

The first stage – weight gain – for those whose body mass index ranges from 25 to 29.9 kg per square meter.

The second stage – obesity – BMI ranges from 30 to 39.9 kg per square meter.

Phase III – obesity – BMI exceeds 40 kg per square meter.

Some bodies also adopt the definition of obesity based on the percentage of fat in the body as follows:

For males: the proportion of fat in the body is more than 25 percent (between 21 and 25 percent is the threshold).

For females: the proportion of fat in the body more than 33 percent (between 31 and 33 percent longer the threshold).

The attending physician should also decide whether the patient has symptoms related to obesity, including:

Respiratory symptoms: Sleep apnea, increased risk of respiratory infections, increased bronchial asthma.

Increased risk of cancer: Obesity is associated with the risk of cancers of the uterus, prostate, colon (in males), rectum (in males), breasts (in postmenopausal women), yellow gland, stomach and biliary tract, pancreas, ovaries, urinary system and even lungs. Esophageal cancer and lymphatic cancer.

Psychological symptoms: exposure to social targeting and depression.

Cardiac symptoms: coronary artery disease, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac lung hypertrophy, obesity cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypertensive pulmonary circulation caused by obesity.

Neurological symptoms: thrombosis, increased blood pressure in the brain, and other symptoms.

Pregnancy-related symptoms: pregnancy-related hypertension, fetal hypertrophy, dystocia.

Surgical symptoms: Increased risk of surgical interventions and increased risk of complications following these interventions, including wound infections, pneumonia, thrombosis of veins and pulmonary embolism.

Symptoms in the pelvic area: lack of control of urination.

Symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract: diseases of the gland, liver disease, esophagitis.

Bone-related symptoms: arthritis, multiple-back pain.

Other symptoms: Diabetes mellitus (second degree) other diseases related to lipid, menopause, early puberty, infertility, polycystic ovaries, testicular atrophy, infections and various skin diseases, increased hair growth, varicose veins, swelling of the limbs, difficulty movement and inability to follow hygiene and public health.

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